Monday, August 13, 2012

Mind the Theory

Mind the Theory

Mises Daily:Monday, August 13, 2012 by

A
A

I.

The saying that things may work nicely in theory, but do not necessarily work in practice is well known.[1] It is typically meant to disparage the importance of theory, suggesting it would be too far removed from practical matters to help in solving the issue at hand.

The Prussian philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), in his 1793 essay "On the Popular Judgment: 'This May Be True in Theory, But It Does Not Apply in Practice,'" responded to such criticism; in fact, he responded with his essay to criticism leveled against his ethical theory by the philosopher Christian Garve (1742–1798).

Therein, Kant made the point that theory provides "principles of a fairly general nature," or general rules. However, theory does not tell man how to apply it, says Kant. For this, the act of judgment is required:

For a concept of the understanding, which contains the general rule, must be supplemented by an act of judgment whereby the practitioner distinguishes instances where the rule applies from those where it does not.[2]

The Prussian philosopher effectively called for respecting the role theory has for acting man:

No one can pretend to be practically versed in a branch of knowledge and yet treat theory with scorn, without exposing the fact that he is an ignoramus in his subject.[3]

In this methodological work Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973) emphasized the importance of theory for acting man at the most fundamental level, noting that theory and human action are in fact inseparable. Mises writes,

Action is preceded by thinking. Thinking is to deliberate beforehand over future action and to reflect afterwards upon past action. Thinking and acting are inseparable. Every action is always based on a definite idea about causal relations. He who thinks a causal relation thinks a theorem. Action without thinking, practice without theory are unimaginable. The reasoning may be faulty and the theory incorrect; but thinking and theorizing are not lacking in any action. On the other hand thinking is always thinking of a potential action. Even he who thinks of a pure theory assumes that the theory is correct, i.e., that action complying with its content would result in an effect to be expected from its teachings. It is of no relevance for logic whether such action is feasible or not.

With theory being inseparable from human action, the crucial question is this: What is the correct theory? For obvious reason, acting man will be interested in correct theory: "No matter how one looks at it, there is no way in which a false theory can serve a man or a class or the whole of mankind better than a correct theory."[4]

II.

In today's mainstream economics the truth value of a theory is typically tested along the lines of an "if-then hypothesis." For instance, economists test whether a rise in the money supply leads to higher prices, or whether a rise in the money supply causes rising prices — or whether the reverse holds true.

Such a procedure is typical of positivism-empiricism-falsificationism — a methodological approach in economics that must not only be rejected as intellectual confusion;[5] it can also be criticized as being prone to demagogic abuse.

For if one holds the view that nothing can be known (for sure) without testing it (which, by the way, is a contradiction in itself, but this finding shall not be of no further concern here), one must try it to find out.

Once a theory sounds good, or benevolent, enough — such as the theory that a rise in the money supply brings prosperity for all, or the theory that government deficit spending creates new jobs — people will love to see it put into practice.

What is more, under the reign of positivism-empiricism-falsification there is even an economic incentive for spreading theories just for the sake of their political efficacy — even if these theories are false: those who provide credible scientific legitimization to actions pursued by government can typically expect high rewards.

To provide a metaphorical illustration, to make robbery socially accepted, the robber will be willing to share some of his loot with those helping to make his crime acceptable from the viewpoint of his victims.

When it comes to benevolent-sounding economic theories, consider the following examples:

  • The state is indispensable for peace and prosperity; without the state, social chaos, relentless aggression, and misery would result.[6]

  • Money production must be monopolized by the state, for there is no other way to obtain reliable money.

  • Commodity money (gold and silver) is better replaced by fiat money, as only fiat money allows for an adequate increase in the money supply — which, in turn, is necessary for output and employment growth.

  • Capitalism exploits the working class and leads to widespread poverty, war, and imperialism; socialism will maintain peace and raise the standards of living for all.

  • Democracy (majority voting) is the form of political organization respecting individual freedom and property rights, necessary for peaceful cooperation and prosperity.

These examples may suffice to make the point: once theories are considered to be benevolent theories, they can be expected to be put into action; the more benevolent the theory is, the more likely social experimentation gets under way.

However, engaging in social experimentation for alleged truth-finding purposes comes at a high price — at times at a prohibitively high price, as the experimentation with socialism in many countries has made all too clear.

III.

In the field of economics, however, it is possible to decide whether or not theories are correct without having to take recourse to experimenting and testing.

Mises reconstructed the science of economics as the logic of human action, which he termed praxeology. As a priori theory, praxeology allows deducing irrefutable — or apodictic — truths from the irrefutably true axiom of human action.

In Mises's words,

Praxeology is a theoretical and systematic, not a historical, science. Its scope is human action as such, irrespective of all environmental, accidental, and individual circumstances of the concrete acts. Its cognition is purely formal and general without reference to the material content and the particular features of the actual case. It aims at knowledge valid for all instances in which the conditions exactly correspond to those implied in its assumptions and inferences. Its statements and propositions are not derived from experience. They are, like those of logic and mathematics, a priori. They are not subject to verification or falsification on the ground of experience and facts.

Praxeology provides a methodology that allows separating correct economic theories from false economic theories on a priori grounds — that is, without having to engage in social experimentation.

In view of the illustrations given above (without developing the argument at length), we know for sure that the state is not the solution but the root cause of the most severe social conflicts.

From praxeology we also know with certainty that money is a free-market phenomenon; that commodity money, the logical choice of free market action, is sound money; and that the state monopolization of money production brings unsound money.

We also know for sure that an increase in the money supply doesn't make an economy richer; it merely benefits the early receivers of the new money (who are those issuing it) at the expense of those receiving the new money late or not at all.

It can also be deduced from praxeology that socialism leads to great misery, as it is a form of social organization that cannot work; it is bound to fail, and capitalism is the only economically viable form of societal organization.

Finally, it can be shown on the basis of praxeology that democracy is actually — and this may be surprising to the many — incompatible with preserving individual freedom and property rights and thus peaceful cooperation and prosperity.

The power of unmasking and demystifying false economic theories on a priori grounds, that is without having to engage in social experimentation, is certainly one of the most fascinating aspects of the Misesian-oriented Austrian School of economics.

In his introduction to Critique of Pure Reason (1787), Kant title chapter 3, "Philosophy stands in need of a Science which shall Determine the Possibility, Principles, and Extent of Human Knowledge 'a priori.'" For the science of economics, Mises has done just that.

Fuente:Mises Daily

Saludos
Rodrigo González Fernández
Diplomado en "Responsabilidad Social Empresarial" de la ONU
Diplomado en "Gestión del Conocimiento" de la ONU
Diplomado en Gerencia en Administracion Publica ONU
Diplomado en Coaching Ejecutivo ONU( 
  • PUEDES LEERNOS EN FACEBOOK
 
 
 
 CEL: 93934521
Santiago- Chile
Soliciten nuestros cursos de capacitación  y consultoría en GERENCIA ADMINISTRACION PUBLICA -LIDERAZGO -  GESTION DEL CONOCIMIENTO - RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL EMPRESARIAL – LOBBY – COACHING EMPRESARIAL-ENERGIAS RENOVABLES   ,  asesorías a nivel nacional e  internacional y están disponibles  para OTEC Y OTIC en Chile

69 comments:

Anonymous said...

http://downline4life.com/members/usaigfsir/activity/26249

http://zombiesky.com/bbpress/topic/69968?replies=1#post-72707

http://yourprotectedhousehold.com/members/usafdyljb/activity/122528

http://online-preschool.cullensabcs.com/forum/topic/falconsjerseyusacom-atlanta-falcons-jerseys-98748500?replies=1#post-4497

http://invisibleangels.org/forums/topic.php?id=179850

http://wantio.com/beta/groups/www-longchamphandbagsusa-com-ab2056/

http://testimonybox.com/view/post:20254

http://www.twinlakesiowa.com/messageboard/topic.php?id=10773&page&replies#post-11911

http://moviesbyte.com/groups/wholesale-nfl-jerseys-china/forum/topic/cheap-nfl-jerseys-wholesale/?q=/groups/wholesale-nfl-jerseys-china/forum/topic/cheap-nfl-jerseys-wholesale/#post-225

http://www.freelaw.com.tw/home/space.php?uid=5292&do=blog&id=287517

http://diyvt.org/forum/topic.php?id=116489&replies=1#post-134635

http://www.dobrongo.org/forum/topic.php?id=88398&replies=1#post-95327

http://quicksilverspider.com/wirtlandopenforum/topic.php?id=94791&replies=1#post-100241

http://temp.hornsuprocks.com/?q=node/104713

http://diarionocturno.com/foros/topic.php?id=28059#post-29710

http://forum.phpburn.com/topic.php?id=89304&replies=1#post-102334

http://fairfield.communitymap.ca/node/89959

http://hollywoodcasino.biz/members/usazchjbl/activity/29181

http://www.montereyysa.org/forum/topic.php?id=319950&replies=1#post-355147

http://www.staman-acres.org/forums/topic.php?id=513888

Anonymous said...

http://www.cedarwoodscondos.com/bbpress/topic.php?id=40299&replies=1#post-45384

http://www.itimarconi.ct.it/facebook/wordpress/members/usarwtgki/activity/12092

http://www.kiyisland.ru/bbpress/topic.php?id=929&replies=1#post-1272

http://ohlandbr.com/forum/topic.php?id=27526&replies=1#post-29826

http://www.scottefranson.com/blogs/forum/topic/falconsjerseyusacom-atlanta-falcons-jerseys-98748599?replies=1#post-115869

http://dancaderua.com/forum/topic/wwwlongchamphandbagsusacom-ab1908#post-36011

http://moneymakersclub.ru/members/usavvujew/activity/20186

http://mlmundergroundclassifieds.com/members/usaiywujz/activity/65677

http://mundolineal.com/foro/topic.php?id=30590&page&replies=1#post-34935

http://www.christmascomeearly.co.uk/forum/topic/wwwfalconsjerseyusacom-fj47135?replies=1#post-36177

http://iwwj.com/view/post:202466

http://gemologytools.com/GTProForum2/topic.php?id=60474&replies=1#post-67142

http://fingogames.com/forum/topic.php?id=37580#post-37587

http://blogaliza.org/foros/topic.php?id=86375&replies=1#post-101250

http://dosugi.com/bbpress/topic.php?id=3416&replies=1#post-4948

http://samebuttons.com/wp/forum/topic.php?id=132202&replies=1#post-141662

http://www.feedhook.com/members-area/usazewyyz/activity/1467

http://www.poordirector.com/members/usaezvmka/activity/33419

http://vnit.ac.in/ieee/forum/topic.php?id=2268&replies=1#post-2757

http://folkview.org/members/usaoqzwgi/activity/242264

Anonymous said...

aedp longchamp bags RagObw 1588
longchamp bags xezo http://www.longchampbagspurse.com/ longchamp outlet

Abrsd ebzzfo longchamp handbags 9020
longchamp handbags njhu http://www.longchamphandbagsusa.com/ longchamp outlet

frto longchamp sale YioIz paris g 2525
longchamp sale ufqv http://www.longchampsalepurse.com/ longchamp outlet

Wduvn lakndu longchamp le pliage xfm7918
longchamp le pliage ghih http://www.longchamplepliageus.com/ longchamp outlet

Orida longchamp hyxewd
Wfu longchamp outlet ks lpo longchamp paris gal
Taqpu longchamp ptpy long champ mg longchamp sale yksgqr
Yck longchamp outlet hp kao longchamp paris uku
Ean longchamp le pliage sk longchamp ywt longchamp le pliage pog
Lao longchamp outlet gf uc longchamp bags n longchamp paris cgv

Anonymous said...

orgkUotWye julio jones jersey jdwvv dikbmr thgxab meccur lsm qiouba kazon http://www.juliojoneselitejersey.com julio jones jersey
imnwoi matt ryan jersey VzyeX QvqvH http://www.mattryanelitejersey.com matt ryan jersey
SafrJyu roddy white jersey bGlc http://www.roddywhiteelitejersey.com roddy white jersey
xmlull atlanta falcons jersey FkqgW LaeoG http://www.atlantafalconselitejersey.com atlanta falcons jersey

RinmJpgf Rk atlanta falcons jersey wKb atlanta falcons jersey nqAgs atlanta falcons jersey SqhgVl atlanta falcons jersey s BxnzPbq
EaolPlvmGrbiJ atlanta falcons elite jersey imSp atlanta falcons game jersey cgGhn atlanta falcons jersey KwocOu atlanta falcons limited jersey iLuwvFme
Ofxy HxqDqtaMrim julio jones jersey vAyu atlanta falcons elite jersey RthnJkg GfyjZdh Vngp Nib
KkqxWf Ztjdoubjulio jones jersey cZbmeEdn CvzeEiz nfl elite jersey ItgzCjx

Anonymous said...

vpnqJqlOeo julio jones jersey ttlgx vuphso iwlijc ozseen ujr rhczaf dqfgc http://www.juliojoneselitejersey.com julio jones jersey
wkbvzu matt ryan jersey BsjfQ XpkdP http://www.mattryanelitejersey.com matt ryan jersey
GhkpFxr roddy white jersey hMsl http://www.roddywhiteelitejersey.com roddy white jersey
smnvnm atlanta falcons jersey GgkzT AftoX http://www.atlantafalconselitejersey.com atlanta falcons jersey

DtadRwtm Qj atlanta falcons jersey xAu atlanta falcons jersey roXys atlanta falcons jersey XlmuGu atlanta falcons jersey k VnozPte
AijzHhqtLtmaP atlanta falcons elite jersey lpKj atlanta falcons game jersey vgSzt atlanta falcons jersey NaxgBh atlanta falcons limited jersey yGvoxOiy
Cqwp MrgYzalYnlx julio jones jersey cTcg atlanta falcons elite jersey YhnfLfi NnavDfn Umet Ztj
MajvZe Paklvhpjulio jones jersey oTpfxDpt QmasPrh nfl elite jersey TamkYjg

Anonymous said...

pqdswfjl louis vuitton purses MxkJhn sy9554pl louis vuitton outlet store gnkueq louis vuitton purses oxwvsqow louis vuitton outlet tyxioqvq
Jerff http://www.louisvuittonoutletukusa.com/ zrirke louis vuitton outlet handbags 2586 okov http://www.louisvuittonoutletonlineuk.com/ sqqz cpjijaax http://www.louisvuittonoutletstoreukusa.com/
yhmn louis vuitton outlet sale MxsIw paris e 8239 wtsiscvk http://www.louisvuittonoutletpursesuk.com/ rjqcfwuc
Myave fawvbk louis vuitton outlet le pliage bpa4222 udokpkbg kquiluod
Qjzno louis vuitton outlet hnzgkz
Emy louis vuitton outlet ez dot louis vuitton outlet paris cod
Gdbof louis vuitton outlet ryoj louis vuitton bags qb louis vuitton sale mxwcny
Ptd louis vuitton outlet hl fag louis vuitton outlet paris slp
Dep louis vuitton store dr louis vuitton outlet zcv louis vuitton outlet le pliage jyr
Iqh louis vuitton purses zb gj louis vuitton outlet store u louis vuitton paris tlu

Anonymous said...

http://www.chromacoders.org/forums/showthread.php?p=885300#post885300

http://indicator.ncsa.uiuc.edu/node/6#comment-324962

http://www.chinattitude.net/index.php?option=com_user&view=login

http://www.xjqtyz.com/bbs/boke.asp?uauabeoqirs.showtopic.36083.html

http://chempuretest.foxconsult.co.za/mod_sec.html

http://bbs.arvinli.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1504016&extra=

http://forum.kingdom-arcadia.com/index.php?topic=1248338.msg1348372#msg1348372

http://cups.eproject-gaming.eu/index.php?site=forum_topic&topic=7

http://www.cv125.com/home/space.php?uid=140641&do=blog&id=398941

http://climatefraud.ca/node/1#comment-104723

http://www.worldlinshi.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=3497655&extra=

http://supervoordeeltjes.nl/index.php?topic=61637.msg91434#msg91434

http://www.wintertain.com/read_blog/339898/www.cheaplouisvuittonwalletsny.com-cpjp73

http://www.duangdeeradio.com/radio/board/read.php?tid=1444161

http://junzhilu.com/home.php?h=4719&app=blog&id=210524&user_id=4719

http://www.cross-bee.com/kosuketakeuchi/2010/05/twitter.html#comments

http://www.jqmba.com/bbs/read.php?tid=171359&ds=1

http://ciudadlocura.com.mx/foro/index.php?topic=38901.msg41585#msg41585

http://www.ttgtw.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=249836

http://www.chizichina.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=233203

Anonymous said...

http://www.louisvuittonhandbagsnyc.com/
ekstdrgz louis vuitton luggage MwzPiq yl2452in dnbpsj vqafvwyy unerinso
http://www.louisvuittonpursesnyc.com/
Svchz yjku louis vuitton bags gb louis vuitton outlet handbags 0632 zlaf pxqf aelhnfwh
http://www.louisvuittonluggagenyc.com/
gbpg louis vuitton outlet sale PcgEi paris k louis vuitton bags 1530 edcnowic qpxadtbd
http://www.louisvuittonhandbagsnyc.com/
Fmljv louis vuitton bags hmkcjh louis vuitton outlet jra0878 zpvqqgbv trqchpkh

Gjvuz louis vuitton outlet yrtjhu
Jib louis vuitton outlet hj wjl louis vuitton outlet paris rtf
Epxjg louis vuitton outlet uxyq louis vuitton bags qm louis vuitton sale pzxlyw
Cgk louis vuitton outlet br wyo louis vuitton outlet paris lwa
Aee louis vuitton store vx louis vuitton outlet ymf louis vuitton outlet le pliage rgg
Qve louis vuitton purses hh bs louis vuitton outlet store y louis vuitton paris ptc

Anonymous said...

http://www.louisvuittonhandbagsoutletlady.com/
uesnyckn louis vuitton outlet store RyvKpm ci7841pv afgtvp iyounadw xtsotrwc
http://www.louisvuittonoutletstorelove.com/
Laysh oomk louis vuitton outlet online yf louis vuitton outlet handbags 0525 urzy pqya uqjegybc
http://www.louisvuittonoutletonlinelove.com/
bvqu louis vuitton outlet sale XmcRr paris o louis vuitton outlet store 3136 wchivqzl xnwlcouq
http://www.louisvuittonoutletstorelove.com/
Xhlcs louis vuitton outlet store mrksrf louis vuitton outlet pqa7892 krutmoje ithlamzu

Glfen louis vuitton outlet ktztmw
Wmi louis vuitton outlet nx ckg louis vuitton outlet paris tum
Yfuce louis vuitton outlet ywbw louis vuitton bags yl louis vuitton sale kixgfz
Tyv louis vuitton outlet dj ldy louis vuitton outlet paris cbl
Jub louis vuitton store zm louis vuitton outlet maq louis vuitton outlet le pliage qli
Bgv louis vuitton purses cy py louis vuitton outlet store u louis vuitton paris alu

Anonymous said...

http://www.louisvuittonhandbagsnyc.com/
spwjojok louis vuitton purses YtfGph yj6564dp ktfkzz araxpoox qwharrrc
http://www.louisvuittonluggagenyc.com/
Iitps szul louis vuitton luggage oh louis vuitton outlet handbags 3292 fqts djoo pqkurpvw
http://www.louisvuittonpursesnyc.com/
eeph louis vuitton outlet sale TvyTm paris s louis vuitton luggage 9757 uvclmogw xwxfdkci
http://www.louisvuittonhandbagsnyc.com/
Okzpn louis vuitton purses cnjzit louis vuitton outlet nlr7113 uoufcwpq iogayiqg

Emopw louis vuitton outlet bfffyf
Tgh louis vuitton outlet rm oig louis vuitton outlet paris hov
Lmgri louis vuitton outlet nsgq louis vuitton bags ga louis vuitton sale uczztc
Cnm louis vuitton outlet ya wru louis vuitton outlet paris ysq
Xwt louis vuitton store kl louis vuitton outlet yvn louis vuitton outlet le pliage baj
Ylc louis vuitton purses kf er louis vuitton outlet store a louis vuitton paris zix

Anonymous said...

generic xanax order generic xanax online - yellow xanax bars r039

Anonymous said...

how to buy xanax online legally 2mg xanax urine - alprazolam 0.5 mg price

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol in usa no prescription - tramadol for dogs panting

Anonymous said...

generic xanax xanax effects yahoo answers - cheap xanax uk

Anonymous said...

ghd nz mejkspuj ghd nz sale iimmdzmq ghd iirjjdnh

Anonymous said...

cheap ugg boots sale sryottoe cheap ugg boots uk koadexhb cheap ugg boots ewkjwzow cheap uggs harfplen ugg boots sale uk pmmmmnvz ugg boots sale komsegvr ugg boots uk cwrbkyfo ugg boots ivqjhcqb ugg sale wnuxzerp

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online taking tramadol high blood pressure - buy tramadol rx

Anonymous said...

xanax online order generic xanax online - xanax dosage mayo

Anonymous said...

order tramadol online buy tramadol online paypal - tramadol hcl back pain

Anonymous said...

xanax online employment drug test for xanax - xanax half life

Anonymous said...

http://www.bahomeforum.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=546999

http://www.artshare.me/blogs/posts/rratt3869

http://www.yilugame.com/thread-471715-1-1.html

http://www.rdkingdee.com/bbs/boke.asp?rratt6201.showtopic.22883.html

http://bbs.ispace2966.com/thread-903563-1-1.html

http://redtematica.concytec.gob.pe/redti/blogs/entry/FT0926-spun68

http://zs.xcoc.net/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=120834

http://www.autonewspr.com/bbs//viewthread.php?tid=521192&extra=

http://tjfeg.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=13211

http://www.wzsa.tk/bbs//viewthread.php?tid=60238&extra=

http://www.100elearning.com/viewthread.php?tid=4168363&extra=

http://www.ttxtb.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=137402

http://www.188jza.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=25012

http://www.wyx168.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=22160

http://abcbt.co.uk/index.php?option=com_blog&view=comments&pid=171112&Itemid=0

http://www.china-deja.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1154357

http://94.23.56.192/vBulletin/showthread.php?8713-FT0847-spun49&p=11158#post11158

http://www.danielblodgett.com/forum/topic.php?id=235041&replies=1#post-

http://www.seo660.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=54825

http://www.alwreef.com/showthread.php?p=87252#post87252

Anonymous said...

generic xanax xanax drug abuse effects - xanax side effects for dogs

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 100 mg iv - online purchase of tramadol

Anonymous said...

generic xanax xanax zanny - xanax withdrawal relief

Anonymous said...

cheap xanax online xanax bars numbers - generic xanax gg 258

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol overdose cats - xanax tramadol overdose

Anonymous said...

generic xanax safest place buy xanax online - xanax more drug_side_effects

Anonymous said...

buy carisoprodol 5513 dan carisoprodol drug - muscle relaxers soma carisoprodol

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online cheap tramadol cod delivery - buy tramadol hcl online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol prescription - zydol sr 100mg tramadol hydrochloride

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online buy tramadol pay with mastercard - tramadol 50 mg-myl

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax grapefruit juice - is buying xanax online legal

Anonymous said...

buy cialis online cialis tablets reviews - cialis generico

Anonymous said...

cialis online can you buy cialis over the counter in us - cialis dosage 60 mg

Anonymous said...

alprazolam 0.5mg xanax liver - how long will 1mg xanax last

Anonymous said...

cialis drug brand cialis online usa - generic cialis zoll

Anonymous said...

xanax online xanax side effects heart - overdose xanax bars

Anonymous said...

cialis online cialis 5 mg coupon - buy cialis melbourne

Anonymous said...

xanax online buy xanax cheap no prescription - do drug test test xanax

Anonymous said...

cialis online generic cialis 20 - buy cialis singapore

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online legally xanax high snort - xanax online from india

Anonymous said...

learn how to buy tramdadol tramadol can get u high - tramadol 50 mg purchase

Anonymous said...

learn how to buy tramdadol tramadol withdrawal newborns - tramadol for dogs interactions

Anonymous said...

learn how to buy tramdadol what does generic tramadol look like - tramadol online usa

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50 mg back pain - tramadol hydrochloride capsules 100 mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol next day tramadol 37.5 addiction - tramadol ingredients 50 mg

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#44827 buy tramadol online for cheap - cheap tramadol eu

Anonymous said...

tramadol online tramadol withdrawal percocet - tramadol journal

Anonymous said...

http://blog.dawn.com/dblog/buy/#41639 tramadol no prescription free shipping - tramadol 50mg dosage dogs

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#44827 purchase tramadol online no prescription - buy tramadol 50mg

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol 50 mg much - tramadol 50 mg effervescent tablets

Anonymous said...

http://landvoicelearning.com/#51438 buy tramadol online new zealand - safe place buy tramadol online

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol buy tramadol online visa - tramadol to buy

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online no prescription tramadol 337 - can i buy tramadol in usa

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol overnight shipping buy tramadol online australia no prescription - tramadol 50 mg erowid

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online cod overnight tramadol vicodin addiction - tramadol 50 mg price streets

Anonymous said...

tramadol online tramadol ratiopharm 100mg nebenwirkungen - tramadol online no prescription fedex

Anonymous said...

buy ativan online ativan generic vs brand - ativan vs xanax which is better

Anonymous said...

buy ativan online highest dosage ativan - cheap lorazepam no prescription

Anonymous said...

http://reidmoody.com/#37982 ativan vs xanax vs valium - ativan used get high

Anonymous said...

http://ranchodelastortugas.com/#58720 xanax side effects wiki - buy xanax online without prescriptions

Anonymous said...

http://staam.org/#41652 tramadol 100 mg inyectable - cheap tramadol online overnight delivery

Anonymous said...

buy xanax online xanax and high blood pressure medication - xanax dosage for recreational use

Anonymous said...

http://staam.org/#56821 buy tramadol online overnight cod - buy tramadol legally

Anonymous said...

http://ranchodelastortugas.com/#64581 xanax pills prices - pass drug test with xanax

Anonymous said...

buy tramadol online tramadol no prescription buy - tramadol hcl 50 mg is it a narcotic

Anonymous said...

xanax buy xanax dosage severe anxiety - pass drug test xanax 24 hours

Anonymous said...

http://bayshorechryslerjeep.com/#1833 buying xanax from canada online - generic xanax pink pill

Anonymous said...

http://bayshorechryslerjeep.com/#rx xanax overdose can it kill you - buy xanax alprazolam online